Timeline

Montgomery Place illustrates Americans’ changing relationship with nature and landscape over time.
Developments at the estate were often made as a result of other regional and national events. Use the Timeline to see how key dates for Montgomery Place relate to key dates in regional and national environmental history.

1850-1900

1850

Hudson River Railroad from New York to Albany cuts through the estate along the edge of the Hudson River

 

Susan Fenimore Cooper publishes Rural Hours, early example of nature writing by a woman

 

A. J. Downing designs Springside for Matthew Vassar in Poughkeepsie

 

 

1851

Crystal Palace, designed by Joseph Paxton, built of iron and glass in London; its structural engineering inspired by giant water lily

 

 

1852

A. J. Downing dies in steamboat accident

 

 

1854

Henry David Thoreau publishes Walden

 

 

1857

Frederic Law Olmsted & Calvert Vaux win design competition for Central Park

 

 

1860

Louise Livingston dies. Montgomery Place coach house, designed by A. J. Davis, built Learn More...

 

 

1861

Gothic-style farmhouse, designed by A. J. Davis, built

 

 

1861-65

American Civil War

 

 

1863-64

A. J. Davis designs east portico based on Temple of Vesta

 

 

1864

George Perkins Marsh publishes Man and Nature, asserting negative human impact on natural systems

 

 

1867

A. J. Davis designs Swiss-style “Factory Lodge” as housing for workers in the mill on the northeast edge of estate Learn More...

 

 

1869

Thomas P. Barton dies

 

Transcontinental railroad completed

 

 

1870

The young Theodore Roosevelt summers near and sketches the Sawkill falls  Learn More...

 

Frederic Edwin Church begins building Olana in nearby Hudson

 

 

1871

New York writer John Burroughs publishes first collection of nature essays, Wake-Robin, in Boston

 

 

1872

Cora Livingston Barton travels to Europe to visit famous gardens, landscapes, and cities

 

Yellowstone National Park created

 

 

1873

Cora Barton dies, leaving her second cousins life tenancy; century plant blooms

 

 

1874

John Ross Delafield born in Riverdale, NY

 

 

1875

Violetta White born in Florence, Italy Learn More...

 

 

1886

George Bird Grinnell founds Audubon Society

 

 

1889

Alexander Gilson dies

 

 

1891

New York Botanical Garden founded

 

 

1892

Sierra Club founded

 

Ellis Island opens; Adirondack Park established

 

 

1899

Beatrix Farrand is one of the founders (and only woman) of the Society of Landscape Architects

 

Congress passes National Park Bill